In the previous chapter we have investigated the different aspects of creating pairs, now we'll look into retrieving values from pairs. This is not too complicated but it is necessary to have a firm understanding of it before proceeding to lists.
Preparing the Ground¶
To start off let us create a few pairs for later reuse (so we don't have to re-type them in the REPL), at the same time taking the opportunity to practise the creation of pairs:
guile> (define a (cons 1 2)) guile> a (1 . 2)
(As an aside: with
define we bind a value to the symbol
a, namely the value the expression
(cons 1 2) evaluates to, which is the pair
(1 . 2). You may notice that the
(define ...) expression itself does not evaluate to anything (as nothing is written to the console), but afterwards
a evaluates to the pair. So later we can simply refer to the pair using
guile> (define b (cons '(3 . 4) "5")) guile> b ((3 . 4) . "5")
Here we create a pair
(3 . 4) to become the first element of our pair
b. You can see that it is possible to nest pairs and to use arbitrary data types as the elemennts of a pair.
guile> (define c (cons (cons 6 7) "8")) guile> c ((6 . 7) . "8")
Again we create a pair as the first element of
c. This example shows how an element can be the result of a procedure application, in this case a nested
cons. In order to read/understand such an expression one should recall what we learnt about expressions in general and “resolve” it one step at a time: the inner
(cons 6 7) evaluates to a pair
(6 . 7), and this pair is then used as the first parameter to the outer procedure
(cons '(6 . 7) "8"), which is then bound to the name
c. As material for later retrieval exercises we will create an even more extreme example of nested pairs:
guile> (define d (cons (cons (cons (cons (cons 1 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)) guile> d (((((1 . 2) . 3) . 4) . 5) . 6)
The second element is
6, the first element is a pair whose second element is
5 whose first element is a pair ... The following (non-functional) rendering may be a helpful visualization of the structure:
( . 6) ( . 5) ( . 4) ( . 3) (1 . 2)
Our final definition assigns a procedure to the first element and the evaluation of a procedure application to the second element of the pair. Presumably you will get a different random number if you try this on your computer, but as it is really pseudo-random you will get the same sequence of numbers whenever you restart your scheme-sandbox.
guile> (define e (cons random (random 100.0))) guile> e (#<primitive-procedure random> . 74.1503668178218)
Now we have five pairs
e that we can work with, starting to retrieve the individual items from the pairs.
Retrieving Elements from Pairs¶
So we have learnt how to create pairs in different ways, from writing them as a literal to rather complex procedure applications. For writing property overrides in LilyPond this should be sufficient in most cases, but as soon as you want to actually work with Scheme it will be necessary to access the individual elements of pairs (and later lists). For this Scheme provides the basic functions
Basic Retrieval Procedures¶
The first element of a pair is retrieved using
car and the second using
guile> a (1 . 2) guile> (car a) 1 guile> (cdr a) 2
a evaluates to 1, with
cdr the result is 2. One can also say “The ‘car’ of ‘a’ is 1, and its ‘cdr’ is 2.” “cdr” can be spelled out as “could-er” to make it more speakable.
These two procedures are very fundamental to working with Scheme, and you will see them a lot in real code. While the concept is as simple as that it is important to have a really firm understanding of it, as you will see the first complications already in the next two sections.
Using Procecures Stored in a Pair¶
We had defined
e to hold the procedure
random as its first element, so retrieving this should give us the procedure. Testing in the REPL happens to confirm this assumption:
guile> (car e) #<primitive-procedure random>
So if we have a procedure at our disposal, shouldn't it be possible to use it, just like a normal procedure, something like
(random 100)? And in fact this works perfectly:
guile> ((car e) 100) 81
Now you may wonder about the nested parens here, but dissecting it slowly it should easily become clear.
(car e) evaluates to the procedure
random, so the expression
((car e) 100) first evaluates to
(random 100), which is the regular syntax for applying procedures, and this application will eventually evaluate to the (random) value 81.
On a more general level what we see here is that whenever an element of a pair is not of a simple (or “primitive”) data type it will be retrieved just as what it is, be it an object, a compound data type - or a procedure. We'll have a closer look at this in the next section.
As we have seen elements of a pair can be pairs themselves:
guile> b ((3 . 4) . "5") guile> (car b) (3 . 4)
In order to retrieve the elements of this pair we can again apply the
cdr procedures - to
guile> (car (car b)) 3 guile> (cdr (car b)) 4
We can “serialize” the nested applications by saying that “3 is the car of the car of b” and “4 is the cdr of the car of b”.
Scheme provides shortcuts for this type of nested pair retrieval, for the previous examples these would be
cdar. There are numerous variations available that can be looked up in the Guile reference. The meaning of these procedures can be “resolved” by considering each
a in the name as “the car of” and each
d as “the cdr of”. So
cdar can be resolved to “ the cdr of the car of
caddar would be “the car of | the cdr of | the cdr of | the car of” something. Of course the value that is passed to such a procedure must have a corresponding level of nesting, otherwise it will trigger an error:
guile> (caar b) 3 guile> (cdar b) 4 guile> (cadr b) standard input:15:1: In procedure cadr in expression (cadr b): standard input:15:1: Wrong type (expecting pair): "5" ABORT: (wrong-type-arg)
The first two are the shorthands for the previous applications, but what has gone wrong with the third one? Let's resolve this expression manually to understand the error message. The original value is
((3 . 4) . "5"), and what we are requesting is “the car of the cdr of” that value. The cdr of the initial value is
"5", and applying the
car procedure to this fails for obvious reasons - as we are told explicitly: In order to retrieve the
car of something this something has to be a pair, but when our
cadr reaches the
car there is only a simple string left from the orginal object.
Now let's finally investigate our multiply nested pair
(((((1 . 2) . 3) . 4) . 5) . 6). Using
car returns yet another pair etc.:
guile> (car d) ((((1 . 2) . 3) . 4) . 5) guile> (car (car d)) (((1 . 2) . 3) . 4)
Nesting cars and cdrs it is possible to retrieve any single element from the nested pair. For example the
4 is the
cdr of what we have just arrived at, or “the cdr of the car of the car of” the original
d. The shorthand should therefore be
guile> (cdr (car (car d))) 4 guile> (cdaar d) 4
As an exercise you can retrieve each single integer from
d, both with the nested procedure applications and the shorthands. Below are the solutions but you are strongly encouraged to try it out yourself before looking at them.
guile> d (((((1 . 2) . 3) . 4) . 5) . 6) guile> (cdr d) 6 guile> (cdr (car d)) 5 guile> (cdar d) 5 guile> (cdr (car (car d))) 4 guile> (cdaar d) 4 guile> (cdr (car (car (car d)))) 3 guile> (cdaaar d) 3 guile> (cdr (car (car (car (car d))))) 2 guile> (cdaaaar d) ERROR: Unbound variable: cdaaaar ABORT: (unbound-variable) guile> (car (car (car (car (car d))))) 1 guile> (caaaaar d) standard input:17:1: In expression (caaaaar d): standard input:17:1: Unbound variable: caaaaar ABORT: (unbound-variable)
There are two invocations that fail because Scheme (or rather Guile) doesn't have these defined as shorthands. In these cases you have to apply and nest the regular procedures. However, if you like to get your head around this additional complexity you can consider the folloiwng (closing) example:
caaaaar is not defined but
caaaar returns a pair. Therefore you can apply
car to the result of
caaaar. And you can even continue on that track, thus nesting the shorthands in arbitrary ways:
guile> (car (caaaar d)) 1 guile> (caar (caaar d)) 1 guile> (caaar (caar d)) 1 guile> (caaaar (car d)) 1